Innate Immunity Pathways

Acyrthosiphon pisum

Photo credit: Robert Brucker ©2012

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hemiptera
Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
Superfamily: Aphidoidea
Family: Aphididae

Pea aphids infest garden and field peas, clover, alfalfa, and some leguminous weeds.It is found throughout the United States and Canada wherever peas and alfalfa are grown.


The adult is light to deep green with reddish eyes. It has a body length of 2.0 to 4.0 mm.

Peaaphids are host-plant specialists, they can reproduce both sexually and asexually, and they have coevolved with an obligate bacterial symbiont.



Aphids face numerous environmental challenges, including infection by diverse pathogens and parasites but they are missing many genes present in other insect genomes which are critical for recognition, signaling and killing of microbes.

Thus, Pea Aphids lack many immune response genes found in other insect species and that their response to pathogen attack is more limited than in other insect species.


Species:    Select Pathway:          



Immunity genes list obtained from:


Immunity and other defenses in pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum.
Gerardo NM, Altincicek B, Anselme C, Atamian H, Barribeau SM, de Vos M, Duncan EJ, Evans JD, Gabaldón T, Ghanim M, Heddi A, Kaloshian I, Latorre A, Moya A, Nakabachi A, Parker BJ, Pérez-Brocal V, Pignatelli M, Rahbé Y, Ramsey JS, Spragg CJ, Tamames J, Tamarit D, Tamborindeguy C, Vincent-Monegat C, Vilcinskas A.
Genome Biol. 2010;11(2):R21. Epub 2010 Feb 23.