Innate Immunity Pathways

Anopheles gambiae

Photo credit: Robert Brucker ©2012

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Diptera
Family: Culicidae

Anopheles gambiae is the main malaria vector in Africa, transmitting the parasite when it blood feeds on human hosts. The parasite undergoes several developmental stages in the mosquito to complete its life cycle, during which time it is confronted by the mosquito's immune system.



Anopheles gambiae is a complex of seven morphologically different species.These are morphologically different and also exhibit different behaviourial traits.Anopheles is the principal vector of malaria, a disease that afflicts more than 500 million people and causes more than 1 million deaths each year.



Due to very different lifestyle of Anopheles gambiae, Immune-related gene families involved in recognition, signal modulation, and effector systems are deficit of orthologs in comparision to other insects and excessive gene expansions. In contrast, the multifunctional Toll signal transduction pathway is substantially conserved in Anopheles,because of counterselection for developmental stability.


Species:    Select Pathway:          



Immunity genes list obtained from:


Immunity-Related Genes and Gene Families in Anopheles gambiae
Christophides GK, Zdobnov E, Barillas-Mury C, Birney E, Blandin S, Blass C, Brey PT, Collins FH, Danielli A, Dimopoulos G, Hetru C, Hoa NT, Hoffmann JA, Kanzok SM, Letunic I, Levashina EA, Loukeris TG, Lycett G, Meister S, Michel K, Moita LF, Müller HM, Osta MA, Paskewitz SM, Reichhart JM, Rzhetsky A, Troxler L, Vernick KD, Vlachou D, Volz J, von Mering C, Xu J, Zheng L, Bork P, Kafatos FC.
Science. 2002 Oct 4;298(5591):159-65.